Glossary

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16 mm Microfilm

Microfilm (usually in roll form) which is 16 mm in width & either 30.5 m – 100 ft or 61 m – 200 ft in length, commonly used to film office documents A4 = 210 X 297 mm and up to A3 = 297 X 420 mm in size via the use of either planetary or rotary cameras.

35mm Microfilm

Microfilm (usually in roll form) which is 35mm in width and 30.5m – 100 ft in length. 35mm roll microfilm is commonly used to preserve documents larger than 210 X 297 mm and 297 X 420 mm in size such as maps, engineering drawings, blueprints, plans, newspapers and other historical documents. These archival documents are usually filmed from large format planetary cameras.

35 mm Silver Halide Microfilm

Silver film is the only type recognized for preservation or “archival” purposes. The image is captured by exposing silver compounds to light. Wet-processed silver film is the only type that can be recognized as archival, dry silver film as is not fixed by chemical processing and washing. This photographic film containing photosensitive compounds suspended in a suitable material. When developed, the image consists of metallic silver. The image is produced by exposing light-sensitive silver compounds in a film emulsion to light. The resulting image is chemically developed, but potentially harmful chemicals are washed out in processing. The original (master) silver-gelatin microfilm is almost always a negative image, but positive or negative duplicates can be made. The emulsion side of this film is matte, while the non-emulsion side is glossy. Modern silver-gelatin films are long-lived under appropriate storage conditions and normal library use.

A

Acetate Film

Film commonly referred to as “Acetate Film” refers to any Cellulose triacetate or Cellulose diacetate film bases. Acetate safety film was first marketed on a large scale in the 1920’s, due largely to a desire on the part of photographic manufacturers to sell 16 mm home movies that did not pose a risk of fire in balky home projectors or hot attics. Non-flammable plastic supports were obtained by grafting acetate or other similar organic acids, onto the cellulose molecule. The initial 16 mm cinema films – and some sheet film were made with cellulose diacetate that has an average of 2 out of possible 3 sites acetylated. Often considered “safety film” with a base composed principally of cellulose acetate or triacetate.  After World War II, cellulose triacetate replaced nitrate in 35 mm motion picture films, as well as in x-ray and various roll films. Low flammability was achieved in all the acetate supports by virtue of the inherent nature of the side groups and by generous additions – 10 – 15 % by weight of fire-retardant substances known as plasticizers.

Acrobat

Adobe’s electronic document format. Documents can be created from within a word processor, from postscript, or from scanned pages. The documents are highly portable, yet maintain the look of the original. Acrobat is especially useful in this area because Adobe makes the reader available for free.

AIIM

The Association for Information and Image Management (AIIM) was founded in 1943 as the National Microfilm Association and has evolved to serve the Enterprise Content Management Industry. AIIM’s Standards Program began developing standards in the early 1960s as a subcommittee of the American Library Association; today it is comprised of more than twenty committees and working groups. More than eighty of AIIM’s standards, recommended practices, and technical reports have been approved by ANSI.

ANSI

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private nonprofit organization that administers and coordinates the United States voluntary standards and conformity assessment system. Founded in 1918, it is the official U.S. representative to the world’s leading standards organizations, including the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), and other regional standards bodies. ANSI accredits standards developers to create standards. The businesses, professional societies and trade associations, standards developers, and government agencies that make up its nearly one thousand members work together to develop voluntary national consensus standards.

Aperture Card Scanner

An aperture card scanner reads information about the drawing – such as the title, version, page, etc that is punched into the card – in what is called Hollerith code. The aperture card scanner reads the punched data and scans the microfilm window. The result is a digital image similar to what is produced from a paper scanner. When the aperture card scanner reads the punched textual information the data is often used to automatically index the scanned image, allowing unattended batch input of thousands of cards at a time. See also Hollerith Punch Card.

Aperture Card

A card with a rectangular hole or holes specifically prepared for the mounting or insertion of microfilm therein. This the marriage of old-style IBM 80 column punch cards and microfilm, micrographics and microforms on or about the 1940’s resulting in the term aperture card. A cut-out aperture area on the card contains a 35 mm – or sometimes a 16 mm or a combination of 16 and 35 mm microfilm, micrographic and microform image of a document, typically a blueprint or other engineering drawing creating the aperture card. Information about the drawing – such as the title, version, page, etc is punched into the card – in what is called Hollerith code and printed along the top. An aperture card scanner reads the punch data and scans the microfilm, micrographic and microform window. The result is a digital image similar to what is produced from a paper scanner. The punched textual information on the aperture card is often used to automatically index the scanned image, allowing unattended batch input of thousands of cards at a time. As strange as this media may seem, it is actually a compact way to store hundreds of thousands of engineering drawings that would otherwise take up warehouses full of paper blueprints. Another description is that of a card with a rectangular hole or holes specifically prepared for the mounting or insertion of microfilm therein.

There are also polyester pocket Aperture Cards.  These were very similar to conventional aperture cards in that they are exactly the same size. Instead of using adhesive tape to secure the frame of microfilm to the card, a polyester pocket sits in the hole (or aperture) of the card. The frame of microfilm is then placed inside the pocket. By far the most popular type of polyester pocket aperture card was the ‘MIL-D’ card. The ‘MIL-D’ card held one frame of 35 mm microfilm. This card was traditionally buff in color but was available in salmon, white, red, green, yellow and blue by special order. These cards were also available in a translucent card to enable both the microfilm and the written information to be copied at the same time. Polyester pocket cards were available in a wide variety of formats to store varying quantities and combinations of not only 35 mm but also 16 mm frames and strips of microfilm. Below are details of only a few examples of the entire range that was available.

Archival Image

An Archival Image is an image meant to have lasting utility. Archival images are usually kept off-line on a cheaper storage medium such as CD-ROM or magnetic tape, in a secure environment. Archival images are of a higher resolution and quality than the digital image delivered to the user on-screen. The file format most often associated with archival images is TIFF, or Tagged Image File Format, as compared to on-screen viewing file formats, which are usually JPEGs and GIFs.

Archival Quality

An imprecise term suggesting that a material, product or process is durable, and/or chemically stable, and that it has a long life and can therefore can be used for preservation purposes. The phrase is not quantifiable; no standards exist that describe how long an ‘archival’ material will last. Another description is that of the degree to which a processed print or film will retain its characteristics during a period of use and storage. The ability to resist deterioration for a lengthy, specified time. The word ‘permanent’ is sometimes used to mean the same thing. Some organizations, for example ANSI , are now using the term life expectancy – LE, LE100 = 100 years, LE500 = 500 years etc. Archival quality is often used to describe the degree to which a processed print or film will retain its characteristics during a period of use and storage. The ability to resist deterioration for a lengthy, specified time.

Archival Quality Microfilm

Silver film is the only type recognized for preservation or “archival” purposes. The image is captured by exposing silver compounds to light. Wet-processed silver film is the only type that can be recognized as archival, as dry silver film is not fixed by chemical processing and washing. This photographic film containing photosensitive compounds suspended in a suitable material. When developed, the image consists of metallic silver. The image is produced by exposing light-sensitive silver compounds in a film emulsion to light. The original (master) silver-gelatin microfilm is almost always a negative image, but positive or negative duplicates can be made. The emulsion side of this film is matte, while the non-emulsion side is glossy. Modern silver-gelatin films are long-lived under appropriate storage conditions and normal library use.

Archival Scans

Archival Scans are digital images serving as surrogates of the original. At this point in time, there is no such thing as an Archival or Preservation scan that acts as an exact replica or replacement of the original, as it is not yet possible to record every piece of information found in the original with today’s scanner technology.

Archival Storage

Information assets stored for long term protection. This necessitates not only fireproof storage but fire ratings for the type of media being archived. Microfilm and microfiche are considered long term or permanent storage mediums and as such require precise control of temperature and humidity as well as protection from UV light sources. Archival storage may include photographs, negatives, motion picture film, glass plate negatives, letters and official documents recording history. Historical artifacts may also reside in this collection. Vault protection is required as the value of these collections increase dramatically over time.

ASCII

American Standard Code for Information Interchange – basic coding method to convert letters, numbers, punctuation, and control codes into digital form (a sequence of 1’s and 0’s = Zero’s) so that it can be understood by other computers.

ASQ

The American Society for Quality (ASQ) was formed in 1946 as the “American Society for Quality Control.” With members in more than 120 countries, and its World Partner and Strategic Alliance international programs, it is the world’s leading authority on quality. ASQ members use time-tested methods and processes to improve work in Education and other markets.

ASTM E-119 Test Protocol

The American Society for Quality (ASQ) was formed in 1946 as the “American Society for Quality Control.” With members in more than 120 countries, and its World Partner and Strategic Alliance international programs, it is the world’s leading authority on quality. ASQ members use time-tested methods and processes to improve work in Education and other markets.

Autocatalytic

A chemical reaction started by a substance (e.g. acid) that is not consumed by the reaction. The subsequent acids created by the chemical reaction then lead to further reactions in an ever-repetitive cycle. This type of chemical deterioration “feeds on itself”. In cellulose acetate film deterioration, acetic acid is the catalyst or substance that “feeds” the reaction.

B

Bar Code

A series of machine-readable lines of varying width used to capture indexing information

Base Density

The optical density of a film base. Since no plastic is 100% transparent, all films have some density. The base density does not include any density produced by the emulsion layer.

Bleed Line

A line width change or a change in the character of the edge of a line usually due to overexposure or over-development or the lateral spread or diffusion of a dye-formed image.

Blemish

A microscopic spot which may appear on microfilm and is usually reddish or yellowish in color, sometimes termed aging blemish or microscopic spot.

Blips

The exposure (dark) marks (usually exposed film created) placed on the microfilm by the camera (predominately rotary cameras) to mark each one of the up to several thousand exposures on a roll of 16 mm film. Blips usually come in three sizes; 1. Small – to designate individual pages or folios; 2. Medium – to designate files and 3. Large – to designate batches of files.

BMP

A native file format of Windows for storing images called “bitmaps.”

Book Cradle

A device which permits the rapid photographing of large bound books. The cradle has balanced, pneumatic, electric controlled or spring loaded platens so that two pages may be photographed at a time. The cradle flattens pages to increase sharpness and reduce shadows during filming.

Boolean

Logic utilizing the terms “AND,” “OR” and “NOT” in conducting searches. Used to widen or narrow the scope of a search.

Brightness

The balance or contrast of light and dark shades in an image. Colored paper can produce different brightness levels in an image.

Buckle

A curvature of film due to shrinkage of the edges while the film is rolled, usually caused by the storage at improper humidity. Temporary buckling results from loss of moisture from the edges of the film when stored under dry air conditions. Permanent buckling is caused by a loss of solvent from the edges of the film when stored under moist air conditions; 4) Piling up of film in a camera, cassette, jacket or magazine due to a film-transport malfunction.

C

Camera Negative

Microfilm used in a camera to produce an original roll of microfilm. For permanent records the camera negative must have a silver gelatin emulsion to ensure longevity of the film. To minimize damage to the microfilm, the camera negative should only be used to produce user copies of the microfilm. In other words, the microfilm that comes out of the camera, as opposed to the microform created by duplication.

CAR System 16 mm Microfilm

Computer Assisted Retrieval System 16 mm Microfilm.  An automated system that uses a database in conjunction with the reading of “blip” marks on each frame of 16 mm & in limited instances 35 mm roll microfilm to speed retrieval of documents, files, and or batches of information stored on roll microfilm.

Cartridge

A roll of microfilm placed in a special plastic case either 16 or 35 mm. This form requires special retrieval equipment but does protect the microfilm from dust and fingerprints. 16 / 35 mm microfilm used in CAR systems are housed in cartridges. The most commonly used 16 mm cartridges are the 3M – Minnesota Mining and Mineral Corp and the ANSI clip type. 35 mm cartridges are very rare and are seldom used today. 35 mm cartridges – the clip type were previously supplied by Kodak.

Cassette

A plastic double-core container for 16 mm microfilm which encloses both the supply and the take-up spool or reel in a single housing not dissimilar to VHS tape cartridges. This form of microfilm, micrographic or microform container has been out of popular use in the microfilm, micrographic or microform industry for many years and will not normally be encountered.

CD, CD-R, CD-RW

These terms refer to the 120 mm = 4 ¾ inches read-only compact disc (CD-ROM). CDs are faster and more accurate than magnetic tape. Cod’s in all their variations are accessed by a laser – based reader and hold just over 600 megabytes of data. CDs, DVDs, and 12” laser (video) discs are forms of Optical Discs.

Cellulose Acetate

Cellulose acetate is a plastic that replaced cellulose nitrate as a base for photographic negatives and motion picture film. Early audio recordings, microfilm/microfiche and X-ray film also consisted of cellulose acetate. It is known as “safety film” because it is far less flammable than its predecessor (cellulose nitrate film). Cellulose acetate was introduced as early as 1909 but did not entirely replace cellulose nitrate until the 1950s. Its deterioration gives rise to the euphemistically named “vinegar syndrome” because of the characteristic odor of the acetic acid released as a by-product.

Cellulose Triacetate

Transparent plastic previously used widely – 1920-1980 as a film base because of its transparency and relative non flammability.

Channel

The space in a jacket into which the film is inserted.

Class 125

A fire rating that designates 125°F as the threshold below which the temperature must be maintained to prevent damage to the contents of an enclosure. The rating is accompanied by a specific duration of time for which the temperature must be held below the threshold, e.g. Class 125-Two Hour. Vaults with this rating are capable of protecting magnetic media, optical disks and electronic equipment.

Class 150

A fire rating that designates 150°F as the threshold below which the temperature must be maintained to prevent damage to the contents of an enclosure. The rating is accompanied by a specific duration of time for which the temperature must be held below the threshold, e.g. Class 150-Two Hour. Vaults with this rating are capable of protecting micrographic media, such as microfilm and microfiche.

Class 350

A fire rating that designates 350°F as the threshold below which the temperature must be maintained to prevent damage to the contents of an enclosure. The rating is accompanied by a specific duration of time for which the temperature must be held below the threshold, e.g. Class 350-Four Hour. Vaults with this rating are capable of protecting paper documents.

Climate Controlled Storage

A storage area that is specifically designed to provide the exacting environmental conditions of a particular media. ANSI/ISO Standards dictate the ideal conditions for each type or records media in storage such as photographic media, microfilm and microfiche and computer media.

COLD Storage

Computer Output to Laser Disk: Microfiche replacement system. COLD systems offer economies as a replacement medium when rapid and / or frequent access to archived documents is necessary. Typically, a 12-inch optical disk platter holds approximately 1.4 million 8.5-by-11-inch pages of information, equal to 7,000 fiche masters. Later COLD media were CD-R & DVD-R.

Color Microfilms and Microfiche

Though there are many potential applications for color microforms, use of this technology cannot accurately be considered a preservation strategy because the life expectancies of most 35mm color films fall far short of preservation goals. Yet there is one (positive) color transparency film that is considered quite promising for preservation. Unlike other color microfilms, which generate their dye image during processing, this film has color layers built directly into its emulsion.

Testing at the Image Permanence Institute (Rochester, NY) suggests that the life expectancy of the dyes is excellent — possibly 300 to 500 years — when the film is not exposed to light. The research also suggests, however, that the film’s polyester base may be less resistant to deterioration than some other polyester bases. Even so, the life expectancy of the base may be as much as 200 years or more. No testing of light stability (important to estimate permanence in use) has yet been done.

Color Stripe

Colors placed at the top edge of the heading area of a jacket, aperture card or microfiche; used for identification and retrieval.

COM

Computer Output Microfilm; Microfilm, micrographic or microform containing data produced by a recorder from computer-generated electrical signals. A computer output microfilmer is a recorder that coverts data from a computer into human-readable language and records it on microfilm, micrographic or microform. Microfilm, micrographic or microform produced directly from a computer file to microfilm, micrographic or microform. COM produces high quality microfilm, micrographic or microform, often in microfiche format.

Continuous-Tone Microfilms

Quality black-and-white microfilming yields a high-contrast negative with excellent text resolution. Unfortunately, high-contrast microfilm cannot ordinarily capture a broad spectrum of gray tones; thus, what is gained in text resolution is lost in reproducing halftone photographic images and illustrations. Continuous-tone microfilming attempts to maximize gray scale reproduction without sacrificing textual resolution

Contrast

The relationship between the high and low brightness of a subject or between high and low density areas of a microfilm, micrographic or microform, a photograph or a screen display.

De-shading

Removing shaded areas to render images more easily recognizable by OCR. De-shading software typically searches for areas with a regular pattern of tiny dots

De-skew

The process of straightening skewed (off-center) images. De-skewing is one of the image enhancements that can improve OCR accuracy. Documents often become skewed when they are scanned or faxed.

De-speckle

Removing isolated speckles from an image file. Speckles often develop when a document is scanned or faxed.

Definition

Distinctness or clarity of details in a photographic image, microfilm, micrographic or microform image, or enlargement.

Densitometer

A device used to measure the optical transmittance or reflectance density of an image or base by measuring the amount of incident light reflected or transmitted.

Density

Measures the contrast between the image and the non-image background of the film in the case of microfilm formats. In addition density can refer to the degree of darkness in an image and also the percentage of screen used in an image. Colored paper or inks can produce different densities in an image.

Develop

To subject to the action of chemical agents or physical agents – as in electro photography for the purpose of bringing to view the invisible latent image produced by the action of radiant energy – e.g. a light source on the sensitized surface.

Diazo

Microfilm, micrographic or microform used to create user copies of master microfilm, micrographic or microform. Diazo refers to the diazonium salts used in the coating layer of this microfilm. The salts are combined with dyes to produce the image. This is a slow print film, which, after exposure to light that is strong in the blue to ultraviolet spectrum and after development, forms an image. Diazo film generally produces non reversible images, i.e., a positive image will produce a positive image and a negative image will produce a negative image.

The color of the image is determined by the composition of the diazonium compound and the coupler used in the process. Diazo film gives polarity identical to that of the original. This polyester based film is ideal for everyday use because of its strength and high quality image, however, because diazo is strongly affected by ultraviolet radiation, especially in a reader machine, this type of film can fade. Diazo film has an average life expectancy of 50 years e.g. LE 50. Processed black diazo resembles silver gelatin film but is glossy on both sides.

Digitization

Synonymous with scanning, it is the conversion from printed paper, microfilm, or some other media, to an electronic form where the page is represented as either black and white dots, or color or grayscale pixels.

Direct Image Film

A film that will retain the same polarity as the previous version of the original material; that is tone for tone, black for black, white for white, negative for negative, or positive for positive with conventional processing.

Disaster Recovery Plan

A plan devised by an organization to avoid data loss or business disruption following a power loss, a natural disaster, or an act of terrorism. A good disaster recovery plan calls for daily backup functions and contingency plans to minimize data loss and business interruption.

Dithering

The process of converting grays to different densities of black dots, usually for the purposes of printing or storing color or grayscale images as black and white images.

Document Preparation

Activities that must be undertaken to prepare records for filming or scanning, digitizing & imaging. Activities include physical preparation such as removing staples, unfolding etc. and intellectual preparation which includes placing records in the correct order, purging records when appropriate, producing indexes, etc.

Document Retention Policy

A set of rules for determining how long documents of different types need to be retained for business or legal purposes. These rules vary by business type, document type, and counsel strategies. A document retention policy is one part of a records management scheme

DPI

Dots Per Inch, a measure of output device resolution and quality. For example, the number of pixels per inch on a display device. Measures the number of dots horizontally and vertically.

Dry Silver Film

A non gelatin silver film that is developed by application of heat.

Duplicate Negative

This copy is almost always silver-gelatin. The duplicate negative is used to generate use copies (see below) for the collection. It should be stored under the best available conditions, since it serves as a working master, to protect the master negative. Ideally, it should be physically separated from use copies.

Essential Records

Records essential to resume or continue operations of the organization, including records necessary to recreate the organization’s legal and financial position, and to fulfill obligations to the organization, its students and employees, and to outside parties.

Exposure

The act of subjecting sensitized materials to radiant energy e.g. a light source.

F

Fielded Searching

Searching in a text search database which has the records organized into fields. Common fields are title, author, keywords, abstract, and date. Fields give the searcher a means to focus the search.

Film Base

Polyester, acetate or nitrate substrata film layer upon which the film emulsion is coated or embedded.

Film Processing

A series of steps involved in the treatment of exposed photographic material to make a latent image visible and ultimately usable, e.g. development, fixing, washing, and drying.

Fine Grain

A description of film silver halide emulsions in which the grain size of silver is small; the term is relative since there is a wide variation in the grain size among various fine grain films.

First Generation

An image, generally used as a master, produced directly from a subject or original document.

Fixer

A solution used to remove undeveloped silver halides from photosensitized emulsions. The fixer usually contains sodium or ammonium thiosulphate – hypo, a hardening agent and an acid or acid salt.

Fog

This is a non image photographic density. A defect that can be caused by; 1) the action of stray light during exposure; 2) improperly compounded processing solutions; or 3) wrongly stored or out dated photographic materials.

Forms Processing

A specialized imaging application designed for handling pre-printed forms. Forms processing systems often use high-end (or multiple) OCR engines and elaborate data validation routines to extract hand-written or poor quality print from forms that go into a database. This type of imaging application faces major challenges, since many of the documents scanned were never designed for imaging or OCR.

Frame Numbering

A number placed by most 16 mm cameras next to each image on the microfilm, micrographic or microform.

Frilling

A puckering and peeling of a photographic emulsion layer from it base.

Full-text Search

Enables the retrieval of documents by either their word or phrase content. Every word in the document is indexed into a master word list with pointers to the documents and pages where each occurrence of the word appears.

Fuzzy Logic

A full-text search procedure that looks for exact matches as well as similarities to the search criteria, in order to compensate for spelling or OCR errors.

G

Ghost Images

Spurious multiple images of objects caused by reflection from lens surfaces in cameras etc.

GIF

Graphics Interchange Format. CompuServe’s native file format for storing images.

Gigabyte

One billion bytes. Also expressed as one thousand megabytes. In terms of image storage capacity, one gigabyte equals approximately 17,000 81/2″ x 11″ pages scanned at 300 dpi, stored as TIFF Group IV images.

Gradation

In photographic originals and reproductions, the rate at which density changes.

Grain

The discrete particles of image silver in photographs.

Grayscale

An array of adjacent neutral density areas varying by a predetermined rate or step from black to white and used to expose film to determine its sensitivity curve.

Gutter

The combined marginal space formed by adjacent margins of any two pages of an open book.

H

Haze

Light scatter in film base or other essentially transparent material.

Heading

An index placed at the top of the microfilm, micrographic or microform – microfiche, jacket or aperture card to identify its content.

Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM)

Software that automatically migrates files from on-line to near-line storage media, usually on the basis of the age or frequency of use of the files.

Historical Value

The usefulness of the records for documenting an organization’s policies, key personnel, major activities, programs, processes, transactions, and events.

Hollerith Punch Card

The first practical use of punched cards for data processing is credited to the American inventor Herman Hollerith, who decided to use Jacquard’s punched cards to represent the data gathered for the American census of 1890, and to read and collate this data using an automatic machine. Many references state that Hollerith originally made his punched cards the same size as the dollar bills of that era, because he realized that it would be convenient and economical to buy existing office furniture, such as desks and cabinets that already contained receptacles to accommodate stacks of bills. Other sources consider this to be a popular fiction. Whatever the case, we do know that these cards were eventually standardized at 7 and 3/8 inches by 3 and 1/4 inches, and Hollerith’s many patents permitted his company – which became International Business Machines – IBM in 1924 to hold an effective monopoly on punched cards for many years.

Hollerith’s early cards were punched with round holes, because his prototype machine employed cards with holes created using a tram conductor’s ticket punch. Hollerith continued to use round holes in his production machines, which effectively limited the amount of data that could be stored on each card. By the early 1900s, Hollerith’s cards supported 45 columns, where each column could be used to represent a single character or data value. This set the standard until 1924-1925, when the Remington Rand Corporation evolved a technique for doubling the amount of information that could be stored on each card. But they failed to exploit this advantage to its fullest extent, and, in 1929-1931, IBM responded by using rectangular holes, which allowed them to pack 80 columns of data onto each card. Although other formats appeared sporadically – including some from IBM, the 80 column card overwhelmingly dominated the punched card market from around the 1950s onward.

Hot Spot

An area that appears appreciably lighter than the surrounding area, commonly the result of uneven distribution of light by the reflector, optical system or camera lighting.

I

ICR

Intelligent Character Recognition. A software process that recognizes handwritten and printed text as alphanumeric characters.

Image Processing Card (IPC)

A board mounted in either the computer, scanner or printer that facilitates the acquisition and display of images. The primary function of most IPCs is the rapid compression and decompression of image files.

Image Reversing Film

A film that when conventionally processed will reverse the polarity and tonal scale of the original material; that is , whites form blacks, blacks from whites, negatives from positives and positives form negatives.

Image Scanning

Image scanning, in data processing, is the act of optically analyzing a two or three dimensional image and digitally encode it (digitize it) for storage in IT as a computer file. Document Scanning or Image Scanning is the action or process of converting text and graphic paper documents, photographic film, photographic paper or other files to digital images.

Inactive Records

Records that do not have to be readily available, but that have to be kept for legal or historical purpose.

Index Fields

Database fields used to categorize and organize documents. Often user-defined, these fields can be used for searches.

Index Frame

Usually, the first or last frame of a series of images on a 16 or 35 mm microfilm, micrographic or microform or microfiche that records a table of contents or index to facilitate locating the contents of a microform.

ISO 9660

The International Standards Organization format for creating CD-ROMs that can be read worldwide.

J

Jacketed Microfiche

A flat transparent plastic or polyester carrier with single or multiple channels made to hold single or multiple microfilm, micrographic or microform images of 16 mm or 35 mm film strips that are sleeved or inserted into plastic or polyester jackets containing three to eight sleeves or channels.

Jam

A defect in a microfilm, micrographic or microform camera that appears as parts of documents followed by a dark streak on the film. This defect is associated more with output from rotary cameras.

JPEG

Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG or JPG). An image compression format used for storing color photographs and images.

K

Key Field

Database fields used for document searches and retrieval. Synonymous with “index field.”

L

Life Cycle of Records

The records management premise that records pass through three stages: creation, maintenance and use, and disposition.

Load File

A data file that sets out links between the records in a database and the document image files to which each record pertains. This is a critical deliverable of any scanning and coding job. Without a correctly structured load file, documents will not properly link to their respective database records

M

Magnification Ratio

The expression of the relative degree of enlargement by an optical instrument; usually expressed in diameters of times, e.g. 16X = 1:16, 24X = 1:24, 30X = 1:30 etc.

Master Negative

The first generation film (or master negative) should be a silver-gelatin negative produced from the original artifact and processed according to standards given in ANSI/AIIM MS23-1998. This is the archival copy, which is used to produce a duplicate negative (see below) for the generation of use copies. The master negative should be stored in a different location from secondary copies and under conditions as close as possible to the ideal. There are a number of repositories that rent space for the archival storage of microfilm. These are recommended, but the user should be sure the storage conditions at the chosen facility meet ANSI standards outlined in ANSI/NAPM IT9.11-1993. The only subsequent use of the master negative should be the reproduction of a duplicate negative lost to damage or disaster.

Media Vault

A Class 125-rated structure dedicated to the storage and protection of magnetic media, such as computer backup tapes.

Microfiche

A sheet of microfilm, micrographic or microform usually 105 X 148 mm = 4.13 x 5.83 inches in size containing multiple images in an X – Y grid pattern. Camera produced microfiche formats are usually 98 for 24 X reduction ratio = 7 rows X 14 columns and for Computer Output Microfiche – COM = 270 for 48 X reduction ratio = 15 rows X 18 columns or sometimes at higher reduction ratios per microfiche or commonly known as ultrafiche.

Microfilm Leader

A clear film 24 to 36 inches = 610 to 914 mm on the front and back of the roll of microfilm, micrographic or microform to protect the images on the film.

Microfilm Stock

Fine grain, high-resolution photographic film capable of recording an image at greatly reduced in size from the original or the raw film to be used for microphotographs.

Microforms

A generic term for media used to store reduced size text and/or images on film or paper. The term usually refers to microfilm or microfiche but also includes micro-opaque formats: microcard and microprint. The generic term microtext is also used.  Microform publishing provides: low-cost access to large and/or rare print collections that are unavailable in other formats, or too costly to reproduce in standard paper form; preservation of and access to content in fragile materials such as newspapers; replacement of missing of periodical issues, and minimal storage requirements.

Micrographics

The techniques associated with the production, handling and use of microforms or the science of recording images on microfilm, or microform.

N

Native File

A file saved in the format of the original application used to create the file. Dealing with native files can minimize expensive per-page costs for the traditional TIFF and/or PDF processing and will maximize the relevant information available from the file.

Native Format

Electronic documents have an associated file structure defined by the original creating application. This file structure is referred to as the “native format” of the document. Because viewing or searching documents in the native format may require the original application (i.e., viewing a Microsoft Word document may require the Microsoft Word application), documents are often converted to a standard file format (i.e., tiff) as part of electronic document processing.

Nitrate Film

The first successful, flexible and transparent film base. First made in 1889, and used in the manufacture of most professional 35 mm film up to 1951. Cellulose nitrate became the first film support because it was the oldest known and best understood plastic; it was also relatively easy to make and well researched due to its use in smokeless gunpowder. The fire hazards in the handling of this material were, and still are, considerable. It has now been replaced by various types of low in flammability safety base. These have included cellulose Diacetate, triacetate and Polyester based film.

Non-record Material

Material that does not need to be filed or that can be destroyed after a short retention. Includes drafts, worksheets, routine replies, and extra copies of documents created for convenience.

Novec 1230 Fire Suppression Systems

An alternative to oxygen-depleting fire suppression systems, this 3M product extinguishes fires by spraying a mist of fluid that is 25-times more evaporative than water into the enclosed area. The evaporative cooling effect of this fluid drops temperatures below the point where ignition can occur and effectively extinguishes the fire. Novec 1230 is totally non-conductive, leaves no residue, and is rated at the NOAEL (No Observable Adverse Effects Level) for human safety. This fire suppression system is ideal for protecting backup tapes, server racks and any other delicate electronic equipment.

Office of Record

The office assigned responsibility for custody and maintenance of specific records. Generally the office in which they were originally created and filed.

Open Shelf Filing

A method of filing records vertically on shelves rather than in conventional filing cabinets.

Optical Resolution

The ability of optical systems and photographic materials to render visible fine detail of an object; a measure of sharpness of an image, expressed as the number of lines per millimeter, discernible in an image. The number of dots per inch (dpi) at which an image is scanned. Images scanned at higher resolutions contain more image information (detail) but also take up more storage space.

300 dpi is the minimum scanning resolution required if you intend to use OCR to extract text from your images. If you’re opting for web presentation, 200 dpi is often a good resolution to use. For example, an 8.5″ x 11″ document scanned at 200 dpi in 256 color grayscale and output as a JPEG with slight compression is approximately 1.5 MB in size.

PDF

Adobe’s Portable Document Format. The term Adobe uses to describe Acrobat files. (See Acrobat)

Permanent Records

Records of indefinite, long-term value. Typically no more than 5% of all records holdings.

Planetary Camera

A type of camera consisting of a camera head – with the film, lights, and a copy board. Documents are placed under the camera head and filmed while lying flat on the copy board. The document being filmed and the film in the camera remain in a stationary position during the exposure process.

Polarity

Microfilm, micrographic or microform has either negative polarity – white lettering on a dark background or a positive polarity – black lettering on a light background. Original camera film normally has a negative polarity. Includes the change or retention of the dark to light relationship of an image, that is, a first-generation camera negative to a second-generation positive indicates a change in polarity, while a first-generation negative to a second-generation negative indicates that polarity is maintained.

Preservation Microfilm

Silver film is the only type recognized for preservation or “archival” purposes. The image is captured by exposing silver compounds to light. Wet-processed silver film is the only type that can be recognized as archival, as dry silver film is not fixed by chemical processing and washing. This photographic film containing photosensitive compounds suspended in a suitable material. When developed, the image consists of metallic silver. The image is produced by exposing light-sensitive silver compounds in a film emulsion to light. The resulting image is chemically developed, but potentially harmful chemicals are washed out in processing. The original (master) silver-gelatin microfilm is almost always a negative image, but positive or negative duplicates can be made. The emulsion side of this film is matte, while the non-emulsion side is glossy. Modern silver-gelatin films are long-lived under appropriate storage conditions and normal library use.

Print Master Negative

This copy is almost always silver-gelatin. The duplicate negative is used to generate use copies (see below) for the collection. It should be stored under the best available conditions, since it serves as a working master, to protect the master negative. Ideally, it should be physically separated from use copies.

Protective Storage

Protective storage requires the use of special fireproof cabinets or vault chambers to protect information assets and vital records from catastrophic destruction. Vault protection also requires environmental control of the chamber to prevent spoliation of the documents and media in storage.

Q

R

Records Center

A low-cost facility for the controlled maintenance, retrieval, and disposal of inactive records. A commercial records center, operated by a private company, houses records of many organization on a fee basis.

Records Custodian

A records custodian is an individual responsible for the physical storage and protection of records throughout their retention period. In the context of electronic records, custodianship may not be a direct part of the records management function in all organizations.

Records Inventory (Survey)

A survey of records conducted to identify the size, scope, and complexity of an organization’s records. It should precede the process of developing or modifying records retention schedules and provide information on the title of each record series, inclusive dates, quantity, arrangement, relationships to other record series, and description of content.

Records Management Liaison

The person responsible for an office’s records management procedures, including file organization and maintenance, records surveys, records transfer, and records disposition; and for maintaining contact with the Records Management Program.

Records Retention Schedule

A comprehensive schedule of record series (by office or department), indicating for each series the length of time it is to be maintained in office areas, in a records center, and when and if such series may be digitized or microfilmed, destroyed, or transferred to the Archives.

Records Storage Impact Analysis

A business analysis to determine the maximum acceptable loss of records and information assets involving critical business records and functions, beyond which the negative impact would be too great for the organization to survive.

Records Storage Risk Assessment

The process of identifying the probabilities of risk associated with loss or destruction of records in storage, as well as assessing current threat levels, vulnerability and risk based on asset value to a party posing a threat or the value of the information asset to the organization owning the records in storage. Insurance is not sufficient to protect the documents since the threat of loss or exposure of the information may pose a higher value risk to the organizational image due to this loss.

Records Vault

A fireproof records chamber employed for the exclusive storage of vital records, information assets and intrinsic value documents and archival material. The vault is equipped with special vault doors to offer a fire rating equivalent to the media being protected and equipped with fire suppression to ensure no damage would occur to the materials stored within the vault. The vault must be under special supervision and provide access control to limit entry to the vault interior. The vault will prevent damage from heat, fire or spoliation from smoke or other contaminants such as steam and water moisture to the interior of the vault. The vault shall be constructed per the requirements of NFPA 232 “Protection of Records Standard” for paper, media and film archives. Vaults designed for the protection of electronic equipment shall be designed per NFPA 75 to ensure the survival of servers and other electronic computer equipment.

Redox

Shorthand for REDuction-Oxidation. It describes the reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. Silver image problems have arisen because of oxidation which may cause redox blemishes, silver mirroring or overall fading. The causes of silver image deterioration are airborne contaminants such as generalized air pollution, paint vapors, building materials, and chemicals in enclosures such as boxes and jackets. It is very difficult to pinpoint specific causes when redox blemishes are found in a collection. High relative humidity is an accelerating factor. Some film degradation is likely to be found in any older microform collection.

Control of temperature and humidity, replacement of damaging enclosures and air filtration will help to protect existing collections. IPI has performed research in the area of enclosures and has developed the Photographic Activity Test (PAT) now specified by ANSI Standard IT9.2-1991. The PAT indicates whether the enclosure will harm silver. It can also be used to test inks, adhesives and labels. IPI has recently developed a PAT for diazo film. Again he stressed that the label “acid-free” is not sufficient: a film enclosure should pass the PAT. In new filming, he discussed the importance of using film that has a long life span. Polyester film base has a life expectancy at least five times longer than that of acetate stored under similar conditions.

Reduction Ratio

Is how many times a document is reduced in size during microfilming and expressed as a numerical value which equates to the dimensions of the original or master and the corresponding dimension of the micro-image. A reduction radio of 24X means the document was reduced 24 or times or a ratio of 24:1 during microfilming.

Resolution Test Target

A target used to read resolution of each roll of microfilm, micrographic or microform. The target must comply with the American National Standards Institute standard published as ANSI/AIIM MS51

Retention Period

The length of time records must be kept before they are eligible for destruction or archival preservation. The retention period begins at a cut-off date (e.g., the end of the fiscal, calendar, or academic year) or is triggered by a cut-off event, such as a termination of employment, contract closure, etc.

Retention Schedule

A plan for the management of records, listing types of records and how long they should be kept; the purpose is to provide continuing authority to dispose of or transfer records to historical archives.

Risk Management

The process that ensures that an organization or corporation does not assume an unacceptable level of risk. Tools to enable risk management include a risk analysis or risk assessment that identify threats and pose solutions to mitigate against that defined threat. Risk assessment should be seen as a specific part of a wider, overall assessment of the risk to which people, facilities, and record collections at work are exposed and can be part of an overall program of risk management.

Rotary Camera

A camera into which documents are fed and the documents and the film move simultaneously similarly to the way a photocopy machine operates. These cameras are used for high speed filming that produces lower quality microfilm, micrographic or microform than produced on planetary cameras.

Server Vault

A Class 125-rated structure dedicated to the protection of Information Technology infrastructure, such as servers and networking equipment.

Service Copy Microfilm

Any of the available media or formats may be acceptable, and images may be positive or negative. Good storage and handling will extend the life of use copies, thus protecting previous generations of microforms.

Silver Halide

A compound of silver and one of the following elements known as halogens: chlorine, bromine, iodine, fluorine.

Silver Halide Microfilm

Silver film is the only type recognized for preservation or “archival” purposes. The image is captured by exposing silver compounds to light. Wet-processed silver film is the only type that can be recognized as archival, as dry silver film is not fixed by chemical processing and washing. This photographic film containing photosensitive compounds suspended in a suitable material. When developed, the image consists of metallic silver. The image is produced by exposing light-sensitive silver compounds in a film emulsion to light. The resulting image is chemically developed, but potentially harmful chemicals are washed out in processing. The original (master) silver-gelatin microfilm is almost always a negative image, but positive or negative duplicates can be made. The emulsion side of this film is matte, while the non-emulsion side is glossy. Modern silver-gelatin films are long-lived under appropriate storage conditions and normal library use.

Silver-gelatin Microfilm

Silver film is the only type recognized for preservation or “archival” purposes. The image is captured by exposing silver compounds to light. Wet-processed silver film is the only type that can be recognized as archival, as dry silver film is not fixed by chemical processing and washing. This photographic film containing photosensitive compounds suspended in a suitable material. When developed, the image consists of metallic silver.

These are based on the familiar technology of black-and-white photography and are the only microform medium appropriate for archival purposes. The image is produced by exposing light-sensitive silver compounds in a film emulsion to light. The resulting image is chemically developed, but potentially harmful chemicals are washed out in processing. The original (master) silver-gelatin microfilm is almost always a negative image, but positive or negative duplicates can be made. The emulsion side of this film is matte, while the non-emulsion side is glossy. Modern silver-gelatin films are long-lived under appropriate storage conditions and normal library use.

Single Page TIFF

The standard output format for TIFF images, where one page = one TIFF image. Some load file formats require multiple TIFF files merged into one TIFF file with multiple pages.

Skew

During printing or scanning, the contents of a page are almost never exactly vertical, which referred to as being skewed. De-skewing is a process where the computer detects and corrects the skew in an image file.

Splice

A joint made by welding two pieces of film together so they will function as a single piece when passing through a microfilm, micrographic or microform reader, reader / printer or other device. Splicing is used to correct errors and should only be done in the clear leader at the beginning of the roll of film.

Step & Repeat Camera

A type of microfilm, micrographic or microform camera that can expose a series of separate images on an area of film usually 105 x 148 mm in size according to a predetermined format, usually in orderly rows and columns for e.g. microfiche.

T

Thresholding

When converting a pixel from grayscale to black and white, the threshold is the gray value above which will be considered white, and below or equal to will be considered black.

TIFF

The Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) was designed from the ground up to alleviate the problems associated with fixed file formats. The key word here is designed. TIFF did not evolve from a de-facto standard. It was created to become the industry standard for image-file exchange. TIFF was a super-set of all existing graphics or image file formats. TIFF incorporates enough flexibility to eliminate the need or justification for proprietary image file formats. As a matter of fact, it is possible to store proprietary information in a TIFF file without violating the intent of the format. TIFF was designed with an eye toward the future, not just for use in the present.

Transitory Records

Routine correspondence with short-term records value, to be destroyed after the action covered by this correspondence is completed.

U

U.L. 72 Test

Standard for safety test for fire resistance of record protection equipment.

Ultrafiche

A microfiche with images reduced more that 90:1 = 90 X reduction and sometimes up to 150:1 = 150 X reduction.

Underexposure

Insufficient exposure of sensitized material due to insufficient illumination, too short an exposure time, too small a lens aperture, or the improper response of an exposure control device.

Unitization

Routine correspondence with short-term records value, to be destroyed after the action covered by this correspondence is completed.

Unstructured Data

Data that is not in tabular or delimited format. File types include word processing files, html files (web pages), project plans, presentation files, spreadsheets, graphics, audio files, video files and emails.

V

Vesicular Microfilm

The word vesicular derives from vesicles, or bubbles that form when an image is developed through heating, which causes nitrogen from diazonium salts to expand. Ultraviolet is then used to decay the salts. Pressure on the film can damage the image-bearing bubbles, and faulty processing can cause the bubbles to burst, resulting in damage to the image. This a film in which the light-sensitive component is suspended in a plastic layer. On exposure, the component creates optical vesicles – bubbles in the layer. These imperfections form the latent image. The latent image becomes visual and permanent by heating the plastic layer and then allowing it to cool. Vesicular film has a grey color in appearance. When placed in a viewer it provides a positive image to the eye. Vesicular duplicating film is a reversing film e.g. a negative master provides a positive duplicate.

These films take advantage of the fact that diazonium salts produce nitrogen as they decompose upon exposure to UV radiation. In vesicular films, diazonium salt coating is sandwiched between two base layers. The film is exposed via contact printing from a master, and the image is developed by heating the film. This momentarily softens the base material and causes expanding nitrogen to form tiny bubbles (or vesicles) that remain when the film is cooled. Typically, residual photosensitive material is then fixed by exposing the film to UV radiation, causing complete decay of the diazonium salts. Incident light passes through the clear areas of the film but is scattered and reflected by the bubbles, causing those areas with vesicles to appear dense. The image will always exhibit slightly raised areas. The film base is always polyester because acetate cannot tolerate the heat used in processing. Vesicular film can easily be damaged by mechanical pressure, which can collapse the bubbles.

Another major vulnerability of vesicular film is bubble migration or movement. At high temperatures, the base material softens allowing the gas contained in the bubbles to expand. As the bubbles grow in size, they can rupture, leaving patches of clear film where the image was formerly visible. Vesicular film may suffer damage at temperatures below 167°F, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) permissible temperature for film readers; so special care is warranted when this film is used in a film reader.

Vinegar Syndrome

A term used to describe the autocatalytic deterioration of cellulose acetate. Acetic acid is released as a by-product of deterioration and typically smells like vinegar. The first instance of cellulose triacetate degradation was reported by Kodak within a decade of its introduction in 1948. The first report came from the Government of India, whose film was stored in hot, humid conditions. It was followed by further reports of degradation from collections stored in similar conditions. Beginning in the 1980s, there was a great deal of focus upon film stability following frequent reports of cellulose triacetate degradation. This material releases acetic acid, the key ingredient in vinegar and responsible for its acidic smell. The problem became known as the “vinegar syndrome.”

Currently there is no practical way of halting or reversing the course of degradation. While there has been significant research regarding various methods of slowing degradation, such as storage in molecular sieves, temperature and moisture are the two key factors affecting the rate of deterioration. According to the Image Permanence Institute, fresh acetate film stored at a temperature of 65°F (18°C) and 50% relative humidity will last approximately 50 years before the onset of vinegar syndrome. Reducing the temperature 15°, while maintaining the same level of humidity, delays the process by 150 years. A combination of low temperature and low relative humidity represents the optimum storage condition for cellulose acetate base films, however, in practice temperatures of 55°F (12°C) and a relative humidity of 35% are now being used.

W

X

XML

eXtensible Markup Language. Used to apply structure to electronic documents. It is more narrowly focused than SGML (the underlying language), thereby making it easier to define standard documents types.

Y